Kyrgyzstan travel » Stone paintings » Ancient History
There are some facts about ancient life of Kyrgyzstan:
EARLY TIMES: 5.000 BC-AD 300
The city of Bishkek as it appears today is quite new-but human beings have left numerous signs of life in the neighborhood for thousands of years. Late Stone Age implements 6,000-7,000 years old were unearthed on the site of the nearby Alamedin hydroelectric station, and ground inside the city has yielded Bronze Age artifacts about 3,000 years old.
The earliest Iron Age people to inhabit Kyrgyzstan were the Saks who nomadized here from the seventh to the third centuries BC. They were succeeded by the Usuns, who practiced both nomadic stock-raising and agriculture in the region until the third century AD. The Saks and Usuns buried their noble dead in kurgans circular mound-tombs, some of which may still be seen dotting the landscape near, the city.
THE MEDIEVAL PERIOD: 600-1500
In the seventh century AD a process of mutual cultural assimilation began in Kyrgyzstan between two groups of people who were totally different in race, language, and habits. The first group was the Turks. Arriving from southern Siberia in the sixth century, the Turkic nomads defeated the Han superpower at Talas, drove them away into anonymity, and quickly caught on to the art of ruling. The Western Turkic Khanate then held sway over a widely spread nomadic confederation based upon the efficient "military democracy" of the knights of the steppe - a primitive but highly effective form of statehood. The second state was Sogd, with its rich centers at Samarkand and Bukhara. In the seventh century the Sogdians, who were traders and farmers of Indo-European (Iranian) stock, began to colonize in the Talas and Chu valleys in present-day Kyrgyzstan. Beginning with trading posts, the Sogdians established many important cities. Over the years, these helped give rise to and took sustenance from the full flower of the Great Silk Road network. In these cities, vigorous creole populations formed when sedentarized Turks blended with the Sogdians. One of the earliest, largest, and longest-lived of these Silk Road cities in the Chui Valley was Navekat, now known as the Krasnaya Rechka ruins. Another large city lies today under the streets of Bishkek.
Bishkek's medieval forerunner flourished from the 8th to the 13 centuries. It was a walled quadrangle occupying the space bounded on the east by the Alamedin River, on the west by Ulitsa Orozbekova, on the north by Ulitsa Leningradskaya, and on the south by Ulitsa Kirova. Mentions by medieval Arab and Persian authors suggest that the city was called Jul ("steppe-land» in Old Turkic). As was typical of pre-Islamic Silk Road centers, Jul was home to several peacefully coexisting religions: Zoroastrianism of the founding Sogdians, Buddhism arriving from the eastern points of (he route, and Nestorian Christianity and Manichacism coming from points west.
Muslim caliphs had had fitful control over Turkic and Sogdian lands in the wake of conquering armies as early as the mid-7th century. But the control of the Muslim rulers of Baghdad and, later, Bukhara over the Chu Valley was nominal. Then in the mid-7th century came the Karakhnnids ("Rich Khans"), converted Muslims of the Karluk Turkic line. The Karakhanids actively promoted the sedentary Muslim civilization of the Samanids whom they usurped. Near modern Bishkek they had a thriving capital named Balasagun, now known as Burana. Under the Karakhanids, Islam became established in the Kyrgyzstan. But the Karakhanids themselves did not last very long.
The Mongols and Tatars under Genghis Khan overran Kyrgyzstan in the early 13th century. Jul and countless other cities were utterly destroyed. Remnants of a settled population lived on at the site by the Alamedin River until the 15th century, but the human tide in the whole Tian-Shan and Semirech'e region had shifted once again to nomadism.
The Kyrgyz, an ancient Turkic people who had first arrived in the territory of modern Kyrgyzstan from the upper Yenisei in the tenth century, became fully established on the scene by the 15th century. We can assume that whoever lived by trade or farming amid the ruins at Jul-for the site probably remained inhabited as a market and caravan stop-kept a very low profile. The Kyrgyz epic poems, full of boasting aimed at their nomadic competitors, reserve the most scornful abuse for sedentary people, who were considered vermin.
PISHPEK FORTRESS: 1825-1862
From the early 16th century, the states closest to the Chu Valley were the Uzbek khanates of Bukhara, Khiva, and Kokand They were involved in incessant rivalries with one another and exerted no control over the distant Kyrgyz. Then in the early 1820's Kokand began a major military initiative to secure its exploitation of the Chu, Ferghana, and Talas valleys, the Issyk-Kul region, and the mountain areas of the Tien-Shan, Alai, and Pamir (in effect, all of modern Kyrgyzstan - and more). Over 35 fortresses were built within 20 years, including-on the age-old site by the Alamedin River-Pishpek. This was the pivotal point in a string of outposts, including Tokmak and Kara-Balta, which guarded the caravan routes extending from Tashkent through the Chu Valley to Issyk-Kul and Kashgar.
Pishpek Fortress is the oldest site that one can visit in Bishkek. It was built in 1825 at the order of Madali Khan by generalissimo Kush-begi Lyashker. In its day it was a cookie-cutter design-"a typical late-medieval Central Asian fortification", according to historians. It had a compact, quadrangular plan roughly 250 meters square. The thick, high walls of stamped clay, in concentric inner and outer perimeters, had loopholes, crenellations, and towers at the corners. The deep, broad moat around the whole fortress was watered by a conduit from the adjacent Alamedin River. The inner citadel, with walls over 10 meters high, contained the quarters of the commandant and other officers, a guardhouse, the powder magazine, armorers' workshops, the mosque, and the treasury. Also within the secure inner wall lived the first "native inhabitants" of the settlement: hostages rendered by noble Kyrgyz clans as peace-pledges to Kokand.
Let us represent you a guide book that can help you during your travel in Kyrgyzstan:
David Peytray traveled in Kyrgyzstan first time in 2004 year. During his travel he fell in love with Kyrgyzstan and decided to come back one more time. He traveled in Kyrgyzstan again in 2007 year. This time he had a long journey with trekking and horse riding. During his travel in Kyrgyzstan he lived with nomads trying to find out everything about their traditions and customs.
Last spring he started to write his book «Kyrgyzstan Travel». In that book he tries to tell everything about Kyrgyzstan and travel in this magic country. «Kyrgyzstan Travel» will be published in 2009 year. The author wants to translate «Kyrgyzstan Travel» book in 2 more languages. «Kyrgyzstan Travel» will be translated also in German and French.
Why «Kyrgyzstan Travel» is a useful book for you?
- «Kyrgyzstan Travel» says about ancient and modern way of nomadic life.
- It includes all facts about geography of Kyrgyzstan.
- You can find in «Kyrgyzstan Travel» useful information about prices in Kyrgyzstan.
- Also it is possible to find out about laws that exist in Kyrgyzstan.
- There are many addresses of guesthouses that you can use during your travel.
- «Kyrgyzstan Travel» is a good guide book for independent travelers.
- There are also many advices to have a save and non-expensive travel in Kyrgyzstan.
Beside all that advantages «Kyrgyzstan Travel» will give you an opportunity to find some places in Kyrgyzstan that are really used by tourists. In this way you will have a chance to enjoy untouched nature by you own and to have an unforgettable travel!
"KYRGYZSTAN TRAVEL" consists of 7 parts:
Kyrgyzstan and it's History.
At this part you will read about the whole history of Kyrgyzstan from the 8 century B.C. You will find many amassing facts that will make your travel much more interesting.
This part is devoted to geography of Kyrgyzstan. David Pay describes many places that are worth to be visited. Also you will find many important information about altitudes of Kyrgyzstan
Flora and fauna of Kyrgyzstan.
Here is written many interesting articles about animal world of Kyrgyzstan. It will be very interesting to have all that inscriptions during your travel.
Travel in Kyrgyzstan.
The author explains why he fell in love with Kyrgyzstan and what attracts him here most of all.
Travel in Kyrgyzstan - Accommodation and Transportation.
It is not difficult to have a calm travel in Kyrgyzstan. David will share with you his own experience with hotels and transport that you can use in Kyrgyzstan.
Kyrgyzstan: advices that can help to have an excellent travel.
Kyrgyzstan is quit different place from all others in the world. That is why you will need some advices in order to understand the way of thinking of local people.
Different kinds of Travel in Kyrgyzstan.
Kyrgyzstan has many kinds of activities for tourists. You can have cultural tours here, trekking, horse riding, rafting and many many other things. More information you will find in the book «Kyrgyzstan Travel». There are many good advises for future travelers.
The book «Kyrgyzstan Travel» is for all kind of tourists. Everyone will find something useful for him to travel here. You can get acquainted with nomad's life to make your travel more impressive and unforgettable! «Kyrgyzstan Travel» consisits of many parts to make everything easy for you and for your travel in Kyrgyzstan!
«Kyrgyzstan travel» is your friend in traveling. Your guide in Kyrgyzstan, and support for all adventures!
Take «Kyrgyzstan Travel» book with you or read it before coming in Kyrgyzstan. «Kyrgyzstan Travel» will open your eyes on many things. Kyrgyzstan is the country of nomads. If you want to know more about nomads from Kyrgyzstan David can help you. His book «Kyrgyzstan Travel» has everything that you need for your travel.
S.M.G. Corporation wants you to enjoy your traveling in Kyrgyzstan. There is one more book that describes our amazing country.
We recommend you to read it and it will help you to find out everything about Kyrgyzstan and nomad's way of life.
The name of the book is "Kyrgyzstan". This book is written by Michael Linder. We think that it is a good guide book that can tell you many interesting things about Kyrgyzstan.
First of all the book "Kyrgyzstan" has not only general information about Kyrgyzstan but also many details about all regions and its highlights. This book will open you a new Kyrgyzstan - the land of nomads and celestial mountains.
Kyrgyzstan is a country not only for cultural tourists but also for people who like trekking and horse riding. In the book you will find very useful information about different gorges and passes, about the transportation and accommodation in different places.
Kyrgyz Republic is an unusual place that is why you will need special practical information from the book about Kyrgyzstan.
Kyrgyzstan is the country of nomads. The book shows different Kyrgyz traditions and explains some rituals that are widely spread in Kyrgyzstan. Also you will read about festivals and holidays in Kyrgyzstan. There are some ancient holidays that people still celebrate in our celestial country. "Kyrgyzstan" has detailed information about visas for visiting Kyrgyzstan. You can find out about organized tours and independent travel in Kyrgyzstan. Travel in Kyrgyzstan is not a difficult thing. People are very hospital and they like tourists that travel here. If you are interested in activities in Kyrgyzstan and its regions - that book will give you many good advices!
This book will help people who are interested in trekking tours in Kyrgyzstan.
The book includes such descriptions as:
Trekking tour in Kyrgyzstan: Chui reguion
Trekking tour in Kyrgyzstan: Issyk Kul region
Trekking tour in Kyrgyzstan: Osh region
Trekking tour in Kyrgyzstan: Talas region
Trekking tour in Kyrgyzstan: Batken region
Trekking tour in Kyrgyzstan: Jalal Abad region
Trekking tour in Kyrgyzstan: Naryn region.
Trekking in Kyrgyzstan is a particular thing. You will have trekking tour in celestial mountains where there are no other people beside nomads. Trekking in Kyrgyzstan is famous for its wild way and for its unbelievable beauty. During trekking tour you can enjoy amazing views and to have trekking in really remote places. Trekking in Kyrgyzstan is save because locale people are fond of tourists. They like to invite people to spend some time with them. Trekking in Tien Shan Mountain will give you the opportunity to discover the real Kyrgyzstan - Kyrgyzstan of nomads! If you go for trekking in Kyrgyzstan we advice you to take with you your equipment in order not loose time looking for rent. Kyrgyzstan in a real nice place to go trekking alone or with good friends. The author says that it is better to have trekking tour with a help of travel company. In this way you will save a lot of time for trekking itself. Kyrgyzstan is open for tourists who are looking for trekking tours and you are always welcome there. The best places for trekking in Kyrgyzstan are Terskey Mountains on the south shore of the Issyk Kul Lake. The book shows some travel roots for trekking in Kyrgyzstan that you can use during your trekking tour. Actually it is quite possible to have trekking alone but anyway it is better to have an experienced guide with you. Trekking in Kyrgyzstan is good chance to have gorgeous vocations and to see many fantastic places!
Trekking tours in Kyrgyzstan are popular among people of all ages and health conditions. The only thing you need for trekking in Kyrgyzstan is deep will to relax and to enjoy stunning views.
Also you will find out about climate in Kyrgyzstan. This information will help you to choose the right time to visit the country. There are also many maps of Kyrgyzstan for your choice. The theme money and costs in Kyrgyzstan is a separate theme in the book. It will help you to travel safe and without any problems. There are special places for shopping in Kyrgyzstan that are described in the book. You can include them in your travel to feel the atmosphere of the Great Silk Road.
All parts of KYRGYZSTAN are given in details. You can read not only about the cities but also about their small parts that are worth to be visited. Kyrgyzstan has many museums. You can see short inscriptions about them and decide to go there or not. If you are going to visit Kyrgyzstan you will need some information about Kyrgyz customs in order to understand everything in the right way.
Also this book will help people who are interested in horse riding tours in Kyrgyzstan.
The book includes such descriptions as:
Horse riding tour in Kyrgyzstan: Chui reguion
Horse riding tour in Kyrgyzstan: Issyk Kul region
Horse riding tour in Kyrgyzstan: Osh region
Horse riding tour in Kyrgyzstan: Talas region
Horse riding tour in Kyrgyzstan: Batken region
Horse riding tour in Kyrgyzstan: Jalal Abad region
Horse riding tour in Kyrgyzstan: Naryn region.
Horse riding in Kyrgyzstan is a particular thing. You will have horse riding in celestial mountains where there are no other people beside nomads. Horse riding in Kyrgyzstan is famous for its wild way and for its unbelievable beauty. During horse riding tour you can enjoy amazing views and to have trekking in really remote places. Horse riding in Kyrgyzstan is save because locale people are fond of tourists. They like to invite people to spend some time with them. Horse riding tour in Tien Shan Mountain will give you the opportunity to discover the real Kyrgyzstan - Kyrgyzstan of nomads! If you go for horse riding in Kyrgyzstan we advice you to take with you your equipment in order not loose time looking for rent. Kyrgyzstan in a real nice place to have horse riding alone or with good friends. The author says that it is better to have horse riding tour with a help of travel company. In this way you will save a lot of time for horse riding itself. Kyrgyzstan is open for tourists who are looking for horse riding and you are always welcome there. The best places for horse riding in Kyrgyzstan are Terskey Mountains on the south shore of the Issyk Kul Lake. The book shows some travel roots for horse riding in Kyrgyzstan that you can use during your horse riding. Actually it is quite possible to have horse riding alone but anyway it is better to have an experienced guide with you. Horse riding in Kyrgyzstan is good chance to have gorgeous vocations and to see many fantastic places!
Horse riding tours in Kyrgyzstan are popular among people of all ages and health conditions. The only thing you need for horse riding in Kyrgyzstan is deep will to relax and to enjoy its stunning views.
Kyrgyzstan is an excellent place for trekking and Horse riding. If you travel in Kyrgyzstan even as a cultural tourist any way you can have at least a half day of trekking or horse riding.
From this book you will find out not only modern facts about life and travel in Kyrgyzstan but also facts from deep history. Kyrgyzstan is famous for its felt carpet. You can get information about the way of carpets production and the places where you can see it during your travel in Kyrgyzstan.
We recommend you to pay special attention on the following themes:
History of Kyrgyzstan - because the country played a big roll during Silk Road existing.
Geography of Kyrgyzstan - it will help you to be mobile during your travel.
People - we have different points of view according to many things.
Kyrgyz culture - Kyrgyzstan is a nomadic country with its unusual culture.
Religions of Kyrgyzstan - there is useful information about religions in Kyrgyzstan.
Arts - during your travel in Kyrgyzstan is worth to pay attention to local handicraft.
Governments in Politics - there are some good facts about this part of life in Kyrgyzstan.
Facts for the Traveler - In this part you can find everything that you need for your travel
in Kyrgyzstan. It has everything from getting in Kyrgyzstan till shopping on famous bazaars.
It is better to know more about Kyrgyzstan and its life because you will discover another world - the world of nomads. Our Kyrgyzstan is a celestial country. The main highlight of Kyrgyzstan is mountains! It is a breathtaking feeling to watch Tien Shan and Pamir mountains in Kyrgyzstan. That is why nomads decided to live in Kyrgyzstan many years ago. And they still love Kyrgyzstan and its rich pastures and clean Mountain Rivers. They live in mountains during summer and in autumn nomads go down in the valleys of Kyrgyzstan. 93% of Kyrgyzstan is mountains - and many of them saved its pristine nature. People who come in Kyrgyzstan for trekking or horse riding always come back one more time. They take with them in Kyrgyzstan their friends and relatives. And Kyrgyzstan always gives them what they need. Kyrgyzstan is an unknown land for many people. Many of them do not even know the right spelling of its name. Some people call this country as Kirgizstan, Kirgizistan, Kyrgizstan, Kirgyzstan, Kirgizi, Kirgiziya, Kirghizie, Kirghizstan, Kirghizistan, Kyrgyztan. The official translation of our country is actually Kyrgyzstan or Kyrgyz Republic. It is an excellent place to relax and to enjoy the nature. Kyrgyzstan is the paradise for photographs. You can find all kinds of lands shape in Kyrgyzstan. There are so many places in Kyrgyzstan that will surprise you by its beauty. The book has many photos of Kyrgyzstan but it is better to see everything with your own eyes. And you will remember Kyrgyzstan for a long time. The territory of Kyrgyzstan is not big but it has a lot of things to do there. Kyrgyzstan is waiting for you. And you will like Kyrgyzstan for its hospitality and deep traditions. People of Kyrgyzstan save their customs and during your travel you can find out them. Kyrgyzstan has unique culture and people. There are many tourists who come in Kyrgyzstan many times. And they say that Kyrgyzstan attracts them very much.
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It is better to know more about Kyrgyzstan and its life because you will discover another world - the world of nomads. In this book you will find Travel Companies that can organize you any kind of tours. You will find there a Travel Company that organize trekking tours in Kyrgyzstan, Travel Company that organize horse riding tours in Kyrgyzstan, Travel Company that organize trekking in Kyrgyzstan, Travel Company that organize rafting tours in Kyrgyzstan, Travel Company that organize bike tour in Kyrgyzstan, travel company that organize ski tours in Kyrgyzstan, Travel Company that organize hiking tours in Kyrgyzstan, Travel Company that organize cultural tours in Kyrgyzstan, Travel Company that organize fishing tour in Kyrgyzstan, Travel Company that organize Bird watching tours in Kyrgyzstan, etc. It is very important to choose the right Travel Company in Kyrgyzstan. A good TRAVEL COMPANY can organize an excellent travel for you! And S. M. G. Travel Corporation is one of them!
Travel in Kyrgyzstan is an unbelievable thing! Find out more from these books to enjoy travel as much as possible!!!