Kyrgyzstan travel » Nomad’s Life » Nomadic life
The presence of horses in Kyrgyzstan that were sacrificed during the burial ceremony and placed along the north side of the burial place testifies to those populations' belief in the hereafter. They are fully harnessed steeds, with saddlecloth decorated with imagery of animal fights with saddles and masks with long branched horns in wood or leather, camouflaging the horses as deer, Elk, or reindeer. These horses too were prepared for a long and important journey a journey that thanks to the disguise would make it easier for them when traveling across the steppes, tundra and the snow-covered northern regions from which some of the first nomadic groups descended.
Mythology of nomads
In the imagery of the sedentary cultures of high civilizations - the ones of yesterday as well as the ones of today - the world of the nomadic peoples often runs the risk of being considered a «different» world, even a primitive world. Then, when we reflect on its artistic production that, besides its originality, must be considered at a high level, one feels the desire to understand and deepen the material and spiritual roots which contributed to its development.
Many studies have been carried out since the time when the first gold objects reached the court of Peter the Great from Siberia. At first they were studies for the purpose of classification, and then they reached higher levels as data came in from field research, that is, from the past and present excavations carried on by archaeologists in the immense territory of the Eurasian steppes and mountains of Kyrgyzstan.
Given the fact that nomadic societies never actually left written records, archeology was the only way to derive information that could confirm or complete news handed down from the sources of those civilizations that had come in contact with them: Greece, Iran, and China. Herodotus recounts what he saw or heard say about them before and beyond the Ponto region, while visiting the Greek colonies near the Black Sea. He did not hide his astonishment at the news he heard, nor his difficulty in believing it. In the Achemenid inscriptions of Behistun and Persepolis, the Saka were mentioned among the subjugated peoples, in order to render glory to the sovereign. The Chinese Annals refer to the dangerous «barbaric peoples» living close lo their borders, and the description of their customs shows surprising similarities with Herodotus pages. All these sources, however, speak about a foreign world, describing it with their own standards.
It could be useful, then, to attempt a different approach to the problem: to make use of data fur-n shed by archeology, and at the same time try to interpret them from the viewpoint of semiotics.
Therefore, in recent times, a new awareness has been reached of the possible symbolic value of these finds and the need to go beyond an attitude that excluded the possibility that these peoples had reached an evolved system of thought, their own vision of the world, and the capacity and will to depict it. And we also now know that we have to reconsider the idea we had of the relationship between the nomads and the sedentary in Kyrgyzstan, because it is now clear, and recent archeological discoveries proved it that their contacts were numerous and could also be peaceable.
For such an analysis it seems useful to examine-considering their good preservation their good preservation - the kurgan found in the Siberian region, even if many comparisons can be done with the western area.
Tombs for dead people
Archeologists analyzed a kind of tomb prepared for the deceased large wooden cages built by laying tree logs one on top of the other and covering them with mounds of earth and stones The cage and the hole containing it wore usually square, while the mound was round and lowering toward the sky In many cultures, the square and the circle symbolize heaven and earth respectively, and the mound elevation could symbolize the mountain, that is a place closer to heavenly spheres.
Even more significant is the study of the bodies of the deceased which, thanks to the ice, are often very well preserved and make it possible to determine not only their gender, age illnesses and cause of death, but also their social place in the group, as well as the burial rite used. We have to remember that the body was embalmed, removing the soft parts and substituting them with aromatic herbs and earth. Sometimes the skull was trepanned and the face covered with wax, then the whole body was dressed-at least the ones of the most distinguished members of the group with sumptuous clothes. Mindful of Herodotus accounts (IV.71.1), some scholars thought that such a preparation served lo preserve the body, especially that of the tribal leader, which was then ought to be honored by the different clans of the tribe However, since not only «princely» tombs contained mummies, we can also assume that the use of this process was for cult purposes, that is the desire for the deceased to remain intact for their journey towards the afterlife.
Interesting is the study of the coffins the bodies were buried in a tree trunk formed the sarcophagus, at times with the exterior decorated with splendid engravings of animals (Basadar). The tree is the symbol of life, as well as the symbol of rebirth. In Altaic populations, a tree trunk could be used as a burial place, especially for children and shamans (Polos'mak 1994 and Roux 1963) The branches of trees such as cedar larch and birch were imagined as reaching high into the sky, while the trunks, carved in the shape of a boat, as transporting the deceased into the world of the dead. This metaphor was present both in the western and eastern mythology, well illustrated by the boat of Carontis transporting souls to the other side of the River Styx Ethnographers observed that several populations m Siberia-the Ossiates, the Kets and the Selkups-still today practice the custom of burying their dead inside the trunks of larch trees, a tree associated with the Sun and the Heavens.
Even the burial furniture was arranged according to a precise idea of space, with a marked division between the areas reserved for men and for women, just as it was in the dwelling places of the living. The tomb was, therefore, like a yurt, a microcosm reflecting the macrocosm Vases, dishes, small wood tables and bronze cauldron contained food (pieces of meal) and drinks (fermented horse milk or stirring liquids) that can be interpreted as the leftovers of a burial banquet or as the nourishment for the future life of the dead, or as offerings lo the gods. Each of the three hypotheses can be accepted since we know that the type of food they offered could vary. Normally it was mutton in Kyrgyzstan, but evidence of beef (Kok Tepe) or dog has been found. This leads us to think of a ritual and/or symbolic offering. The recipients made of clay, wood, or bones could symbolize the hearth, the vegetable world and the animal world. In some cases, the buried body shows tattoos. There, the shoulders, arms and legs of a (30-year-old man and of a 25-year-old young woman are entirely covered with tattoos. They depict figures of animals represented in the purest «animal style» deer, tigers, leopards, lions, horses and composite animals portrayed in a typical «contortionist" posture-with legs and backs turned up-giving to the whole composition an effect of great dynamism and movement.
Meanings of tattoos
Tattooing was widely practiced in ancient times from east to west, but different meanings were attached to it the Greeks thought it was a mark of infamy for Thracians, «to be tattooed is a sign of noble birth» (Herodotus V.6) According to Pliny Sarmatians and Daci used tattooing, and Virgin describes the worshippers of Hyperboreus Apollon as pict Agatyrsi. But it was also a mark distinguishing shamans and priests in Kyrgyzstan and others countries. If, according to Parlato's hypothesis (Parlato 1994) the tattoo is «a form of writing system used in the steppe world, we have to suppose that nomadic peoples, through their tattoos, were delivering a message, codified in a universally understandable figurative language. And that their function could be magic or apothropaic or, as Polos'mak suggests, would represent a cosmogonic myth.
Another important object found in kurgans is a bronze cauldron containing stones among which were partially burnt seeds of wild hemp. Seeds of hemp were also preserved in a nearby container, along with a fragment of leather decorated with gryphons snapping at elks. This object has been identified as a cape meant to cover the head and face during inhalations. While being burnt, in fact, hemp gives off fumes with hallucinogen effects. This recalls to mind, obviously, that passage of Herodotus (73,2) where he mentions how the Scythians were accustomed to using fumigations at burials for purification. The Greek historian could not explain this unusual practice linked to burial cults in any other way. Today, however, we interpret it as more of a shaman ritual that was widely used in Kyrgyzstan. It is known that shamans made use of intoxicating substances to enter into a trance which would enable them to reach the world of the dead and come in contact with them.
Let us represent you a guide book that can help you during your travel in Kyrgyzstan:
David Peytray traveled in Kyrgyzstan first time in 2004 year. During his travel he fell in love with Kyrgyzstan and decided to come back one more time. He traveled in Kyrgyzstan again in 2007 year. This time he had a long journey with trekking and horse riding. During his travel in Kyrgyzstan he lived with nomads trying to find out everything about their traditions and customs.
Last spring he started to write his book «Kyrgyzstan Travel». In that book he tries to tell everything about Kyrgyzstan and travel in this magic country. «Kyrgyzstan Travel» will be published in 2009 year. The author wants to translate «Kyrgyzstan Travel» book in 2 more languages. «Kyrgyzstan Travel» will be translated also in German and French.
Why «Kyrgyzstan Travel» is a useful book for you?
- «Kyrgyzstan Travel» says about ancient and modern way of nomadic life.
- It includes all facts about geography of Kyrgyzstan.
- You can find in «Kyrgyzstan Travel» useful information about prices in Kyrgyzstan.
- Also it is possible to find out about laws that exist in Kyrgyzstan.
- There are many addresses of guesthouses that you can use during your travel.
- «Kyrgyzstan Travel» is a good guide book for independent travelers.
- There are also many advices to have a save and non-expensive travel in Kyrgyzstan.
Beside all that advantages «Kyrgyzstan Travel» will give you an opportunity to find some places in Kyrgyzstan that are really used by tourists. In this way you will have a chance to enjoy untouched nature by you own and to have an unforgettable travel!
"KYRGYZSTAN TRAVEL" consists of 7 parts:
Kyrgyzstan and it's History.
At this part you will read about the whole history of Kyrgyzstan from the 8 century B.C. You will find many amassing facts that will make your travel much more interesting.
This part is devoted to geography of Kyrgyzstan. David Pay describes many places that are worth to be visited. Also you will find many important information about altitudes of Kyrgyzstan
Flora and fauna of Kyrgyzstan.
Here is written many interesting articles about animal world of Kyrgyzstan. It will be very interesting to have all that inscriptions during your travel.
Travel in Kyrgyzstan.
The author explains why he fell in love with Kyrgyzstan and what attracts him here most of all.
Travel in Kyrgyzstan - Accommodation and Transportation.
It is not difficult to have a calm travel in Kyrgyzstan. David will share with you his own experience with hotels and transport that you can use in Kyrgyzstan.
Kyrgyzstan: advices that can help to have an excellent travel.
Kyrgyzstan is quit different place from all others in the world. That is why you will need some advices in order to understand the way of thinking of local people.
Different kinds of Travel in Kyrgyzstan.
Kyrgyzstan has many kinds of activities for tourists. You can have cultural tours here, trekking, horse riding, rafting and many many other things. More information you will find in the book «Kyrgyzstan Travel». There are many good advises for future travelers.
The book «Kyrgyzstan Travel» is for all kind of tourists. Everyone will find something useful for him to travel here. You can get acquainted with nomad's life to make your travel more impressive and unforgettable! «Kyrgyzstan Travel» consisits of many parts to make everything easy for you and for your travel in Kyrgyzstan!
«Kyrgyzstan travel» is your friend in traveling. Your guide in Kyrgyzstan, and support for all adventures!
Take «Kyrgyzstan Travel» book with you or read it before coming in Kyrgyzstan. «Kyrgyzstan Travel» will open your eyes on many things. Kyrgyzstan is the country of nomads. If you want to know more about nomads from Kyrgyzstan David can help you. His book «Kyrgyzstan Travel» has everything that you need for your travel.
S.M.G. Corporation wants you to enjoy your traveling in Kyrgyzstan. There is one more book that describes our amazing country.
We recommend you to read it and it will help you to find out everything about Kyrgyzstan and nomad's way of life.
The name of the book is "Kyrgyzstan". This book is written by Michael Linder. We think that it is a good guide book that can tell you many interesting things about Kyrgyzstan.
First of all the book "Kyrgyzstan" has not only general information about Kyrgyzstan but also many details about all regions and its highlights. This book will open you a new Kyrgyzstan - the land of nomads and celestial mountains.
Kyrgyzstan is a country not only for cultural tourists but also for people who like trekking and horse riding. In the book you will find very useful information about different gorges and passes, about the transportation and accommodation in different places.
Kyrgyz Republic is an unusual place that is why you will need special practical information from the book about Kyrgyzstan.
Kyrgyzstan is the country of nomads. The book shows different Kyrgyz traditions and explains some rituals that are widely spread in Kyrgyzstan. Also you will read about festivals and holidays in Kyrgyzstan. There are some ancient holidays that people still celebrate in our celestial country. "Kyrgyzstan" has detailed information about visas for visiting Kyrgyzstan. You can find out about organized tours and independent travel in Kyrgyzstan. Travel in Kyrgyzstan is not a difficult thing. People are very hospital and they like tourists that travel here. If you are interested in activities in Kyrgyzstan and its regions - that book will give you many good advices!
This book will help people who are interested in trekking tours in Kyrgyzstan.
The book includes such descriptions as:
Trekking tour in Kyrgyzstan: Chui reguion
Trekking tour in Kyrgyzstan: Issyk Kul region
Trekking tour in Kyrgyzstan: Osh region
Trekking tour in Kyrgyzstan: Talas region
Trekking tour in Kyrgyzstan: Batken region
Trekking tour in Kyrgyzstan: Jalal Abad region
Trekking tour in Kyrgyzstan: Naryn region.
Trekking in Kyrgyzstan is a particular thing. You will have trekking tour in celestial mountains where there are no other people beside nomads. Trekking in Kyrgyzstan is famous for its wild way and for its unbelievable beauty. During trekking tour you can enjoy amazing views and to have trekking in really remote places. Trekking in Kyrgyzstan is save because locale people are fond of tourists. They like to invite people to spend some time with them. Trekking in Tien Shan Mountain will give you the opportunity to discover the real Kyrgyzstan - Kyrgyzstan of nomads! If you go for trekking in Kyrgyzstan we advice you to take with you your equipment in order not loose time looking for rent. Kyrgyzstan in a real nice place to go trekking alone or with good friends. The author says that it is better to have trekking tour with a help of travel company. In this way you will save a lot of time for trekking itself. Kyrgyzstan is open for tourists who are looking for trekking tours and you are always welcome there. The best places for trekking in Kyrgyzstan are Terskey Mountains on the south shore of the Issyk Kul Lake. The book shows some travel roots for trekking in Kyrgyzstan that you can use during your trekking tour. Actually it is quite possible to have trekking alone but anyway it is better to have an experienced guide with you. Trekking in Kyrgyzstan is good chance to have gorgeous vocations and to see many fantastic places!
Trekking tours in Kyrgyzstan are popular among people of all ages and health conditions. The only thing you need for trekking in Kyrgyzstan is deep will to relax and to enjoy stunning views.
Also you will find out about climate in Kyrgyzstan. This information will help you to choose the right time to visit the country. There are also many maps of Kyrgyzstan for your choice. The theme money and costs in Kyrgyzstan is a separate theme in the book. It will help you to travel safe and without any problems. There are special places for shopping in Kyrgyzstan that are described in the book. You can include them in your travel to feel the atmosphere of the Great Silk Road.
All parts of KYRGYZSTAN are given in details. You can read not only about the cities but also about their small parts that are worth to be visited. Kyrgyzstan has many museums. You can see short inscriptions about them and decide to go there or not. If you are going to visit Kyrgyzstan you will need some information about Kyrgyz customs in order to understand everything in the right way.
Also this book will help people who are interested in horse riding tours in Kyrgyzstan.
The book includes such descriptions as:
Horse riding tour in Kyrgyzstan: Chui reguion
Horse riding tour in Kyrgyzstan: Issyk Kul region
Horse riding tour in Kyrgyzstan: Osh region
Horse riding tour in Kyrgyzstan: Talas region
Horse riding tour in Kyrgyzstan: Batken region
Horse riding tour in Kyrgyzstan: Jalal Abad region
Horse riding tour in Kyrgyzstan: Naryn region.
Horse riding in Kyrgyzstan is a particular thing. You will have horse riding in celestial mountains where there are no other people beside nomads. Horse riding in Kyrgyzstan is famous for its wild way and for its unbelievable beauty. During horse riding tour you can enjoy amazing views and to have trekking in really remote places. Horse riding in Kyrgyzstan is save because locale people are fond of tourists. They like to invite people to spend some time with them. Horse riding tour in Tien Shan Mountain will give you the opportunity to discover the real Kyrgyzstan - Kyrgyzstan of nomads! If you go for horse riding in Kyrgyzstan we advice you to take with you your equipment in order not loose time looking for rent. Kyrgyzstan in a real nice place to have horse riding alone or with good friends. The author says that it is better to have horse riding tour with a help of travel company. In this way you will save a lot of time for horse riding itself. Kyrgyzstan is open for tourists who are looking for horse riding and you are always welcome there. The best places for horse riding in Kyrgyzstan are Terskey Mountains on the south shore of the Issyk Kul Lake. The book shows some travel roots for horse riding in Kyrgyzstan that you can use during your horse riding. Actually it is quite possible to have horse riding alone but anyway it is better to have an experienced guide with you. Horse riding in Kyrgyzstan is good chance to have gorgeous vocations and to see many fantastic places!
Horse riding tours in Kyrgyzstan are popular among people of all ages and health conditions. The only thing you need for horse riding in Kyrgyzstan is deep will to relax and to enjoy its stunning views.
Kyrgyzstan is an excellent place for trekking and Horse riding. If you travel in Kyrgyzstan even as a cultural tourist any way you can have at least a half day of trekking or horse riding.
From this book you will find out not only modern facts about life and travel in Kyrgyzstan but also facts from deep history. Kyrgyzstan is famous for its felt carpet. You can get information about the way of carpets production and the places where you can see it during your travel in Kyrgyzstan.
We recommend you to pay special attention on the following themes:
History of Kyrgyzstan - because the country played a big roll during Silk Road existing.
Geography of Kyrgyzstan - it will help you to be mobile during your travel.
People - we have different points of view according to many things.
Kyrgyz culture - Kyrgyzstan is a nomadic country with its unusual culture.
Religions of Kyrgyzstan - there is useful information about religions in Kyrgyzstan.
Arts - during your travel in Kyrgyzstan is worth to pay attention to local handicraft.
Governments in Politics - there are some good facts about this part of life in Kyrgyzstan.
Facts for the Traveler - In this part you can find everything that you need for your travel
in Kyrgyzstan. It has everything from getting in Kyrgyzstan till shopping on famous bazaars.
It is better to know more about Kyrgyzstan and its life because you will discover another world - the world of nomads. Our Kyrgyzstan is a celestial country. The main highlight of Kyrgyzstan is mountains! It is a breathtaking feeling to watch Tien Shan and Pamir mountains in Kyrgyzstan. That is why nomads decided to live in Kyrgyzstan many years ago. And they still love Kyrgyzstan and its rich pastures and clean Mountain Rivers. They live in mountains during summer and in autumn nomads go down in the valleys of Kyrgyzstan. 93% of Kyrgyzstan is mountains - and many of them saved its pristine nature. People who come in Kyrgyzstan for trekking or horse riding always come back one more time. They take with them in Kyrgyzstan their friends and relatives. And Kyrgyzstan always gives them what they need. Kyrgyzstan is an unknown land for many people. Many of them do not even know the right spelling of its name. Some people call this country as Kirgizstan, Kirgizistan, Kyrgizstan, Kirgyzstan, Kirgizi, Kirgiziya, Kirghizie, Kirghizstan, Kirghizistan, Kyrgyztan. The official translation of our country is actually Kyrgyzstan or Kyrgyz Republic. It is an excellent place to relax and to enjoy the nature. Kyrgyzstan is the paradise for photographs. You can find all kinds of lands shape in Kyrgyzstan. There are so many places in Kyrgyzstan that will surprise you by its beauty. The book has many photos of Kyrgyzstan but it is better to see everything with your own eyes. And you will remember Kyrgyzstan for a long time. The territory of Kyrgyzstan is not big but it has a lot of things to do there. Kyrgyzstan is waiting for you. And you will like Kyrgyzstan for its hospitality and deep traditions. People of Kyrgyzstan save their customs and during your travel you can find out them. Kyrgyzstan has unique culture and people. There are many tourists who come in Kyrgyzstan many times. And they say that Kyrgyzstan attracts them very much.
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It is better to know more about Kyrgyzstan and its life because you will discover another world - the world of nomads. In this book you will find Travel Companies that can organize you any kind of tours. You will find there a Travel Company that organize trekking tours in Kyrgyzstan, Travel Company that organize horse riding tours in Kyrgyzstan, Travel Company that organize trekking in Kyrgyzstan, Travel Company that organize rafting tours in Kyrgyzstan, Travel Company that organize bike tour in Kyrgyzstan, travel company that organize ski tours in Kyrgyzstan, Travel Company that organize hiking tours in Kyrgyzstan, Travel Company that organize cultural tours in Kyrgyzstan, Travel Company that organize fishing tour in Kyrgyzstan, Travel Company that organize Bird watching tours in Kyrgyzstan, etc. It is very important to choose the right Travel Company in Kyrgyzstan. A good TRAVEL COMPANY can organize an excellent travel for you! And S. M. G. Travel Corporation is one of them!
Travel in Kyrgyzstan is an unbelievable thing! Find out more from these books to enjoy travel as much as possible!!!