Kyrgyzstan travel » Nomad’s traditions » Meanings of symbols
Meanings of symbols
We already mentioned about shamanism in Kyrgyzstan - given the necessary restrictions - referring to the above-mentioned tomb of Ak-Alakh 3: a single tomb containing the body of a woman, elegantly dressed with a yellow silk tunic and adorned with a tall headdress. Her shaved head is covered with a wig torn which stands a piece of petal-shaped wood, covered in black felt and surrounded by fifteen small wooden birds coated in gold leaves. At the base, a deer supports a cone ending with a sphere upon which lies another deer.
Each of these objects obviously has a symbolic meaning: the petal with the birds could be interpreted as the tree of life, the deer as animals linked to the god of heaven. The peculiarity of this tomb is even more evident when considering other objects: the back of a mirror, decorated once again with the figure of a deer, the wooden necklace with figures of leopards in apotropaic function, a wooden recipient with its handle in the shape of two facing leopards, and containing a «whisk» for whipping milk. Rightly Polos'mak recalls the Indian cosmological myth where Indra, wan a long peg, makes earth emerge from the primordial ocean, and the Visnuite myth of the whipping of the milk sea to produce amrita,, the drink of immortality. All these elements make us think of «signs» indicating the presence of a shaman, or of a priestess dead at young age, and buried with the honors due to her status.
Beside shamanism, the nomadic peoples practiced other cults in Kyrgyzstan, among which the one of the sun and the stars, of the fire, of the mother goddess, of the ancestors, and totemism
In regards to the cult of the sun, it seems proved in different ways. The kurgan-temple of Ulug-Chorum (Sagly culture), in the Tuva region, excavated by A. D. Grac (Grac 1980). was identified by him as a temple of the sun. In fact, the monument comprises a circular wall, inside of which the space was subdivided, into 32 segments arranged as if in a wheel. The circle and the wheel are undisputed symbols of the sun. The structure of the kurgan, therefore, must have had a precise meaning, confirmed with all probability by images of horses, goats and deer engraved in the interior boundary wall. The image of the sun is also depicted on bronze discs placed in tombs (for example in Tagar) or in some petroglyphs. Sometimes associated with human figures (as in Tamgaly, Kazakhstan). Lastly, as we will see, a solar significance can be attributed to certain animals, such as horses and deers, often present in Siberian art.
Animals in nomad's life
In reality, animals are the preferred subjects in all forms of art of the populations inhabiting the steppes, from the Pontus region to Kyrgyzstan and China. Aside from the obvious esthetical values reached by these objects, one wonders what the reason could be for such a choice as we said before, the representation of animals was mainly due lo the lifestyle of the nomadic peoples and their environment. It.-was therefore the logical consequence of a vision of a world with boundless space, but with its essential nucleus lying in the human-animal relationship. In daily life, animals were of great value to the nomads: they symbolized a) food (hunting and animal husbandry wore the principal productive activities); they symbolized b) the opportunity to move on great distances; c) they symbolized the adversary against which lo measure and prove one's ability.
Someone attempted lo create hypothesis of a «magic» or «totemic» value of this imagery, employing arguments that were partly acceptable. In fact, one can suppose that, by depicting an animal, people could think of a magic transposition of its strength, ferocity and speed onto the persons who look possession of it, by tattooing it on their skin or by adorning their clothes with that image. Another interpretation is given by considering that a certain animal could be a totem of a particular tribe, thus becoming the sign of belonging lo a group or to a certain social class. Not only lo the ancient nomads. It's well known, for instance, that the wolf was the totemic animal of the Turns, and Gingiz Khan was said to be the descendant of a wolf and a deer.
Leaving behind the last remains of former great power by 1293 Kyrgyz for many years lived without their statehood. The attempts by Muhhammed-Kyrgyz (Tagai-biy) at the beginning of 16th century, by Kubat-biy and Azhi-biy in the middle of 18th century, by Ormon-khan and Alymbek-datka, in the middle of 19th century aimed in Kyrgyz's integration, failed. Living without statehood and domicile living and for preserving of independence and ethnic originality, the Kyrgyz were forced to strictly keep to principles and rules of tribalism living in Kyrgyzstan.
The tribal principles started its formation in the gregarious epoch of mankind. Struggling with nature, predators and alike, survivors were gregarious. With the time being, herds transformed into constant collectives, based on blood relations kins or clans. Some clans, sharing one territory and speaking the same language, formed a tribe.
Later on, turning from appropriating (fruits, and roots collections, hunting) to production house hold (agriculture, cattle-breeding) especially with adoption of sedentary way of life blood relatives were being changed by neighboring groups. Although in many agricultural relations of our planet, the skilful utilization and smart application and modernization of working tools resulted in rather advanced social organization of the Australian aborigines, the African Bushmen, stayed unchanged.
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There was one exception from the common tendency of development, associated with nomadic cattle-breeding, one of sector of production households, albeit, in virtue of its specifics, holding society within the early class relationships. This was the context for the biggest part of the Kyrgyz population till the beginning of 1930s. In other words, tribal features in Kyrgyzstan, reserved among the Kyrgyz till modern times is a specific heritage of nomadic cattle-breeding. These virtues impeded to agriculture and nomadism and preserved preclass relations. Moreover, the lack of Kyrgyz statehood for many centuries, made independence projection and clan or tribe integrity purely descendant of tribal integrities.
All breeding nomads' history reveals that only few tribes including Kyrgyz, lacking statehood, but stubbornly adhering to the principles of tribal economy, succeeded to preserve their ethnic identity and integrity, whereas the other one Huns, Saki, Karluks, Tgorgesh, Polovets, who formed in tribes almost simultaneously with the Kyrgyz, or later, almost dissolved in other ethnic formations, or reappeared with other ethnic names (Uzbeks, Kazakhs, and others).
The Kyrgyz society's self-determination on one principles of tribalism, as researches have shown, spread over almost all the spheres of life targeted at provision of well-being, originality independence and integrity of a tribe; regulation of economic , property family , inter-group, and interpersonal relations: upbringing of capable generation; family and tribe protection from greater threats and, of course, assets enlargement by «legitimate» for those times method barymtoi (cattle-lifting from other tribes and families). The principles of tribalism and its rules maintained organization, direction, breeding and all other legal activities.
The system of tribe being
The basic until for the Kyrgyz society was a family - tutun (literally - smoke, i.e., those cooking independently') Next-uulu, `sons`, with common predecessor, often back to the 7th generation. Their number varied from several dozens to several hundreds of families. A union of several uulu - generation of sons formed uruk - clan of blood relatives with further set common predecessor. A tribe, uruu contained several uruk - clans.
Manufacturing and other economic activities of a clan in Kyrgyzstan was the basic source of life for the Kyrgyz lacking that unity, having common blood -relations, people would fail to perform their main functions and life for many centuries. Social scientist from the 1920s, and up to recent years, following obvious reasons, almost anonymously, «proved» the development of classes and tough exploitation within Kyrgyz society, already in the middle Ages. Nevertheless, the analysis of earlier sources, not yet «backed» by the notorious classes approach, as well as an honest analysis of other materials (including Communist party's documents of the first years of Soviet power) would confirm, that by the beginning of the 20th century, the Kyrgyz property was only formally private and in reality - communal. In the first place this relates to the land acquisition.
A book «The Kyrgyz and Kara-Kyrgyz of Syrdaria oblast» published under the name General Governor N.I.Grodekov (real author A.N. Vneshnegorodski, who made researches in Auleata uezd (district), seconded by Governor Grodekov) says that «no one can borrow a pasture from an honored clan of the nomad Kyrgyz. One can ask: «I have no pasture, let me be your neighbour (konshulash). Having been refused, you cannot do anything about it» (Grodekov 1889 p111.)
Philosophy of life
Kyrgyz communal ownership for land was confirmed by one of the most highly educated persons of that time, a big specialist of Kyrgyzstan and Kyrgyz way of life Talyp Moldo (1849-1949). He wrote that the Kyrgyz did not have either much of hay harvesting then or developed agriculture, and admitted that: «in times of militancy («zhookerchilik balanda» time prior to affiliation with Russia D.D.) bearing in mind, that those, who will part from the relatives for an inch, will never see then again («karysh azhiragan karygancha korushpoit») and there fore people lived close to each other. Hence in land farming rich and poor lived together wandered together and settled at a new site, too. One clans land was divided for inner branches and ailes. Land did not pass from father to a son as legacy though: each family had a certain place, where it settled after each nomadic trip. Land division utilization was subject to ail, the decision of the authorities». (Kyrgyzdar 1993 p.527-528)
N.I.Grodekov in his book says that Kyrgyz property community is based on clan's origin. Closer relations make property disposal less controlled. Children take from the parents whatever they want. Theft in a family is called secret picking (korsoltpai olgan)... for the people in need aksakal (old authority) levies from the people (zhurtchuluk) even the latter are against of it» (Grodekov 1889).
This happened during burials, commemorations weddings and pertained to fiancée ransom, killer's fee, fines for injures and dept's coverage. Legal proceeding s among the Kyrgyz in the Kokand Khanate and in the beginning of Soviet years, were based on adal, not shariat, or Legal Code. According to adapt in some tribes, for instance, man killing was penalized up to 300 horses worth fine, a murder of a woman cost the offender 150 horses, men's eye injury -150, and woman's eye was 75 horse fine worth. Obviously, not all were solvent to pay such a fine. So adequate amount of stock was collected from all members of a branch or clan, and should they resist, clan, branch or ail suffered violent robbery (talon) with the mute accordance of other relatives. (Kyrgyzdar, 1993 p 528-529.)
Azhos, biys, manaps
Clans' supervision system in Kyrgyzstan was also aimed at provision of well-being, preserving of originality, independence and integrity of an ethnic formation. Tribal development stage shows, that in those times a tribe was ruled by a chieftain with the help of council of elders. Kyrgyz chieftains of different times were differently named. In ancient Enisei period of their history they called they «azho». Till now the anarchy period is called by the Kyrgyz as «period of missing of the holding azho, who is keeping kozho» (Ai! - degen azho zhok. Koi'-degen kozho zhok»). Later chieftain was called «biy» (Tagay-biy, Kubat-biy, Azhi-biy, Usup-biy and other) In the 19th century biy was replaced by manap.
N.I.Grodekov in his book says that Kyrgyz manaps were simply the best people, holding no more honours, than other authorities of the clan and manap is not a full legacy title: if manap's son is angry or poor, he is no more a manap. Asan Djangeldin writes that «Manap is like Russian Duke None of them was from Gengiz-Khan family (his descendants -D.D.) Manaps were the best from commons (zhurtan ozup), bravest and lavish in wars, who gathered people and ruled them (el bashtagan), i.e. those, who stood out (ozu osup chykkan). They were not selected but if so, they would be chosen» (Grodekov 1889 p.6). The presence of natural selection in the system of biy and manap rule in Kyrgyzstan was proven by manap hierarchy names: Chon manap (Chief manap), zhany manap (new manap), Chala manap (not real manap), as well as some historical facts. Hence in Osh outskirts, in the middle of the 18th century, Kubat-biy was the governing head of Kushchu tribe. In the second part of the 18th century, in the same region Azhi-biy was the reigning head of Adigene tribe. Top biy for that area since the 20th of the 19th century became Alymbek Asan biy uulu. He represented Adegene tribe, but was not direct ancestor of Azhy - biy's. Another example - famous Baitik batyr after his father death, a chief manap of the South- Kanai, spent his childhood and days of youth in alien tribe in Talas not in good times. Then he returned to Chui valley, his Motherland, when he proved to be a brave and loyal person to other chief - Sarybagysh manap, not his native Soltin manap of Zhantai. Only when he became famous for his generosity and braveness, noted by Zhangarach-the chief manap of Soltin tribe, he was often invited for council settings. With time Zhangarach asked Baitik to solve some (initially small) issues. Then, closer to Zhanga-rach's death, the priority of Baitik among other Soltin manaps became absolute.
Let us represent you a guide book that can help you during your travel in Kyrgyzstan:
David Peytray traveled in Kyrgyzstan first time in 2004 year. During his travel he fell in love with Kyrgyzstan and decided to come back one more time. He traveled in Kyrgyzstan again in 2007 year. This time he had a long journey with trekking and horse riding. During his travel in Kyrgyzstan he lived with nomads trying to find out everything about their traditions and customs.
Last spring he started to write his book «Kyrgyzstan Travel». In that book he tries to tell everything about Kyrgyzstan and travel in this magic country. «Kyrgyzstan Travel» will be published in 2009 year. The author wants to translate «Kyrgyzstan Travel» book in 2 more languages. «Kyrgyzstan Travel» will be translated also in German and French.
Why «Kyrgyzstan Travel» is a useful book for you?
- «Kyrgyzstan Travel» says about ancient and modern way of nomadic life.
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"KYRGYZSTAN TRAVEL" consists of 7 parts:
Kyrgyzstan and it's History.
At this part you will read about the whole history of Kyrgyzstan from the 8 century B.C. You will find many amassing facts that will make your travel much more interesting.
This part is devoted to geography of Kyrgyzstan. David Pay describes many places that are worth to be visited. Also you will find many important information about altitudes of Kyrgyzstan
Flora and fauna of Kyrgyzstan.
Here is written many interesting articles about animal world of Kyrgyzstan. It will be very interesting to have all that inscriptions during your travel.
Travel in Kyrgyzstan.
The author explains why he fell in love with Kyrgyzstan and what attracts him here most of all.
Travel in Kyrgyzstan - Accommodation and Transportation.
It is not difficult to have a calm travel in Kyrgyzstan. David will share with you his own experience with hotels and transport that you can use in Kyrgyzstan.
Kyrgyzstan: advices that can help to have an excellent travel.
Kyrgyzstan is quit different place from all others in the world. That is why you will need some advices in order to understand the way of thinking of local people.
Different kinds of Travel in Kyrgyzstan.
Kyrgyzstan has many kinds of activities for tourists. You can have cultural tours here, trekking, horse riding, rafting and many many other things. More information you will find in the book «Kyrgyzstan Travel». There are many good advises for future travelers.
The book «Kyrgyzstan Travel» is for all kind of tourists. Everyone will find something useful for him to travel here. You can get acquainted with nomad's life to make your travel more impressive and unforgettable! «Kyrgyzstan Travel» consisits of many parts to make everything easy for you and for your travel in Kyrgyzstan!
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Take «Kyrgyzstan Travel» book with you or read it before coming in Kyrgyzstan. «Kyrgyzstan Travel» will open your eyes on many things. Kyrgyzstan is the country of nomads. If you want to know more about nomads from Kyrgyzstan David can help you. His book «Kyrgyzstan Travel» has everything that you need for your travel.
S.M.G. Corporation wants you to enjoy your traveling in Kyrgyzstan. There is one more book that describes our amazing country.
We recommend you to read it and it will help you to find out everything about Kyrgyzstan and nomad's way of life.
The name of the book is "Kyrgyzstan". This book is written by Michael Linder. We think that it is a good guide book that can tell you many interesting things about Kyrgyzstan.
First of all the book "Kyrgyzstan" has not only general information about Kyrgyzstan but also many details about all regions and its highlights. This book will open you a new Kyrgyzstan - the land of nomads and celestial mountains.
Kyrgyzstan is a country not only for cultural tourists but also for people who like trekking and horse riding. In the book you will find very useful information about different gorges and passes, about the transportation and accommodation in different places.
Kyrgyz Republic is an unusual place that is why you will need special practical information from the book about Kyrgyzstan.
Kyrgyzstan is the country of nomads. The book shows different Kyrgyz traditions and explains some rituals that are widely spread in Kyrgyzstan. Also you will read about festivals and holidays in Kyrgyzstan. There are some ancient holidays that people still celebrate in our celestial country. "Kyrgyzstan" has detailed information about visas for visiting Kyrgyzstan. You can find out about organized tours and independent travel in Kyrgyzstan. Travel in Kyrgyzstan is not a difficult thing. People are very hospital and they like tourists that travel here. If you are interested in activities in Kyrgyzstan and its regions - that book will give you many good advices!
This book will help people who are interested in trekking tours in Kyrgyzstan.
The book includes such descriptions as:
Trekking tour in Kyrgyzstan: Chui reguion
Trekking tour in Kyrgyzstan: Issyk Kul region
Trekking tour in Kyrgyzstan: Osh region
Trekking tour in Kyrgyzstan: Talas region
Trekking tour in Kyrgyzstan: Batken region
Trekking tour in Kyrgyzstan: Jalal Abad region
Trekking tour in Kyrgyzstan: Naryn region.
Trekking in Kyrgyzstan is a particular thing. You will have trekking tour in celestial mountains where there are no other people beside nomads. Trekking in Kyrgyzstan is famous for its wild way and for its unbelievable beauty. During trekking tour you can enjoy amazing views and to have trekking in really remote places. Trekking in Kyrgyzstan is save because locale people are fond of tourists. They like to invite people to spend some time with them. Trekking in Tien Shan Mountain will give you the opportunity to discover the real Kyrgyzstan - Kyrgyzstan of nomads! If you go for trekking in Kyrgyzstan we advice you to take with you your equipment in order not loose time looking for rent. Kyrgyzstan in a real nice place to go trekking alone or with good friends. The author says that it is better to have trekking tour with a help of travel company. In this way you will save a lot of time for trekking itself. Kyrgyzstan is open for tourists who are looking for trekking tours and you are always welcome there. The best places for trekking in Kyrgyzstan are Terskey Mountains on the south shore of the Issyk Kul Lake. The book shows some travel roots for trekking in Kyrgyzstan that you can use during your trekking tour. Actually it is quite possible to have trekking alone but anyway it is better to have an experienced guide with you. Trekking in Kyrgyzstan is good chance to have gorgeous vocations and to see many fantastic places!
Trekking tours in Kyrgyzstan are popular among people of all ages and health conditions. The only thing you need for trekking in Kyrgyzstan is deep will to relax and to enjoy stunning views.
Also you will find out about climate in Kyrgyzstan. This information will help you to choose the right time to visit the country. There are also many maps of Kyrgyzstan for your choice. The theme money and costs in Kyrgyzstan is a separate theme in the book. It will help you to travel safe and without any problems. There are special places for shopping in Kyrgyzstan that are described in the book. You can include them in your travel to feel the atmosphere of the Great Silk Road.
All parts of KYRGYZSTAN are given in details. You can read not only about the cities but also about their small parts that are worth to be visited. Kyrgyzstan has many museums. You can see short inscriptions about them and decide to go there or not. If you are going to visit Kyrgyzstan you will need some information about Kyrgyz customs in order to understand everything in the right way.
Also this book will help people who are interested in horse riding tours in Kyrgyzstan.
The book includes such descriptions as:
Horse riding tour in Kyrgyzstan: Chui reguion
Horse riding tour in Kyrgyzstan: Issyk Kul region
Horse riding tour in Kyrgyzstan: Osh region
Horse riding tour in Kyrgyzstan: Talas region
Horse riding tour in Kyrgyzstan: Batken region
Horse riding tour in Kyrgyzstan: Jalal Abad region
Horse riding tour in Kyrgyzstan: Naryn region.
Horse riding in Kyrgyzstan is a particular thing. You will have horse riding in celestial mountains where there are no other people beside nomads. Horse riding in Kyrgyzstan is famous for its wild way and for its unbelievable beauty. During horse riding tour you can enjoy amazing views and to have trekking in really remote places. Horse riding in Kyrgyzstan is save because locale people are fond of tourists. They like to invite people to spend some time with them. Horse riding tour in Tien Shan Mountain will give you the opportunity to discover the real Kyrgyzstan - Kyrgyzstan of nomads! If you go for horse riding in Kyrgyzstan we advice you to take with you your equipment in order not loose time looking for rent. Kyrgyzstan in a real nice place to have horse riding alone or with good friends. The author says that it is better to have horse riding tour with a help of travel company. In this way you will save a lot of time for horse riding itself. Kyrgyzstan is open for tourists who are looking for horse riding and you are always welcome there. The best places for horse riding in Kyrgyzstan are Terskey Mountains on the south shore of the Issyk Kul Lake. The book shows some travel roots for horse riding in Kyrgyzstan that you can use during your horse riding. Actually it is quite possible to have horse riding alone but anyway it is better to have an experienced guide with you. Horse riding in Kyrgyzstan is good chance to have gorgeous vocations and to see many fantastic places!
Horse riding tours in Kyrgyzstan are popular among people of all ages and health conditions. The only thing you need for horse riding in Kyrgyzstan is deep will to relax and to enjoy its stunning views.
Kyrgyzstan is an excellent place for trekking and Horse riding. If you travel in Kyrgyzstan even as a cultural tourist any way you can have at least a half day of trekking or horse riding.
From this book you will find out not only modern facts about life and travel in Kyrgyzstan but also facts from deep history. Kyrgyzstan is famous for its felt carpet. You can get information about the way of carpets production and the places where you can see it during your travel in Kyrgyzstan.
We recommend you to pay special attention on the following themes:
History of Kyrgyzstan - because the country played a big roll during Silk Road existing.
Geography of Kyrgyzstan - it will help you to be mobile during your travel.
People - we have different points of view according to many things.
Kyrgyz culture - Kyrgyzstan is a nomadic country with its unusual culture.
Religions of Kyrgyzstan - there is useful information about religions in Kyrgyzstan.
Arts - during your travel in Kyrgyzstan is worth to pay attention to local handicraft.
Governments in Politics - there are some good facts about this part of life in Kyrgyzstan.
Facts for the Traveler - In this part you can find everything that you need for your travel
in Kyrgyzstan. It has everything from getting in Kyrgyzstan till shopping on famous bazaars.
It is better to know more about Kyrgyzstan and its life because you will discover another world - the world of nomads. Our Kyrgyzstan is a celestial country. The main highlight of Kyrgyzstan is mountains! It is a breathtaking feeling to watch Tien Shan and Pamir mountains in Kyrgyzstan. That is why nomads decided to live in Kyrgyzstan many years ago. And they still love Kyrgyzstan and its rich pastures and clean Mountain Rivers. They live in mountains during summer and in autumn nomads go down in the valleys of Kyrgyzstan. 93% of Kyrgyzstan is mountains - and many of them saved its pristine nature. People who come in Kyrgyzstan for trekking or horse riding always come back one more time. They take with them in Kyrgyzstan their friends and relatives. And Kyrgyzstan always gives them what they need. Kyrgyzstan is an unknown land for many people. Many of them do not even know the right spelling of its name. Some people call this country as Kirgizstan, Kirgizistan, Kyrgizstan, Kirgyzstan, Kirgizi, Kirgiziya, Kirghizie, Kirghizstan, Kirghizistan, Kyrgyztan. The official translation of our country is actually Kyrgyzstan or Kyrgyz Republic. It is an excellent place to relax and to enjoy the nature. Kyrgyzstan is the paradise for photographs. You can find all kinds of lands shape in Kyrgyzstan. There are so many places in Kyrgyzstan that will surprise you by its beauty. The book has many photos of Kyrgyzstan but it is better to see everything with your own eyes. And you will remember Kyrgyzstan for a long time. The territory of Kyrgyzstan is not big but it has a lot of things to do there. Kyrgyzstan is waiting for you. And you will like Kyrgyzstan for its hospitality and deep traditions. People of Kyrgyzstan save their customs and during your travel you can find out them. Kyrgyzstan has unique culture and people. There are many tourists who come in Kyrgyzstan many times. And they say that Kyrgyzstan attracts them very much.
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